Costo de Capital

La estructura del capital de una organización empresarial está dada por las diferentes cuentas que han permitido la adquisición de recursos necesarios para el debido funcionamiento del negocio, la forma como están constituidos los recursos que la empresa a requerido para desarrollar su actividad, es decir los proveedores de capital.

El Balance General en una organización permite observar cuales han sido los diferentes medios de apalancamiento que la empresa a utilizado para poder ejecutar sus actividades; en este sentido podemos decir que los proveedores de recursos financieros se ubican en el Pasivo y en el Patrimonio y que cada uno de ellos tiene un costo, un valor que se debe pagar a aquella persona, entidad crediticia, banco que ha facilitado el recurso financiero.

Una de las funciones primordiales del Administrador Financiero pasa por identificar la mejor opción de las diferentes ofertas de capital que se encuentran en el mercado para el negocio, analizar las diferentes variables para acceder al dinero, costo, tiempo, garantías,  y a su vez optimizar el uso de este dinero en la organización, es decir que se puedan generar los recursos suficientes provenientes de la dinámica objeto del negocio para generar los flujos de dinero necesarios que permitirán pagar el capital y el costo del dinero adquirido de los proveedores de capital.

Costo de Capital

La estructura de los recursos de capital en la organización está clasificada en el corto y largo plazo, tales como Obligaciones Financieras, Obligaciones Hipotecarias, Proveedores, Aporte socios, etc.

El Administrador Financiero debe verificar que el negocio genere márgenes de rentabilidad superiores al costo que debe pagar la empresa por el uso del capital conseguido para trabajar, es muy posible que encontremos empresas que presenten márgenes de utilidad que son inferiores al costo que la empresa debe pagar a los diferentes proveedores de capital, situación que hace que a primera vista se entienda que se están generando utilidades cuando estas no son suficientes.

Una metodología que permite diagnosticar cuanto le vale a una empresa el dinero que ha conseguido prestado es el Costo del Capital, el cual permite a aquellos negocios que han adquirido diversos medios de financiación, en el corto y largo plazo, conocer la composición del pasivo y el patrimonio, la relevancia o peso que cada una de estas fuentes de financiación tiene y el costo promedio ponderado de los recursos de capital utilizados por la organización.

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